Interaction Diagram For Library Management System

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  • UML Tutorial

UML Class Diagram Example. Library Domain Model describes main classes and relationships which could be used during analysis phase to better understand domain area for Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as a Library Management System (LMS). Each physical library item - book, tape cassette, CD, DVD, etc. Could have its own item number. An interaction overview diagram is a form of activity diagram in which the nodes represent interaction diagrams. Interaction diagrams can include sequence, communication, interaction overview and timing diagrams. Most of the notation for interaction overview diagrams is the same for activity diagrams.

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Object diagrams are derived from class diagrams so object diagrams are dependent upon class diagrams.

Object diagrams represent an instance of a class diagram. The basic concepts are similar for class diagrams and object diagrams. Object diagrams also represent the static view of a system but this static view is a snapshot of the system at a particular moment.

Object diagrams are used to render a set of objects and their relationships as an instance.

Purpose of Object Diagrams

The purpose of a diagram should be understood clearly to implement it practically. The purposes of object diagrams are similar to class diagrams.

The difference is that a class diagram represents an abstract model consisting of classes and their relationships. However, an object diagram represents an instance at a particular moment, which is concrete in nature.

It means the object diagram is closer to the actual system behavior. The purpose is to capture the static view of a system at a particular moment.

The purpose of the object diagram can be summarized as −

  • Forward and reverse engineering.

  • Object relationships of a system

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  • Static view of an interaction.

  • Understand object behaviour and their relationship from practical perspective

How to Draw an Object Diagram?

We have already discussed that an object diagram is an instance of a class diagram. It implies that an object diagram consists of instances of things used in a class diagram.

Interaction Overview Diagram For Library Management System

So both diagrams are made of same basic elements but in different form. In class diagram elements are in abstract form to represent the blue print and in object diagram the elements are in concrete form to represent the real world object.

Interaction Diagram For Library Management System In Ooad


To capture a particular system, numbers of class diagrams are limited. However, if we consider object diagrams then we can have unlimited number of instances, which are unique in nature. Only those instances are considered, which have an impact on thesystem.

From the above discussion, it is clear that a single object diagram cannot capture all thenecessary instances or rather cannot specify all the objects of a system. Hence, the solution is −

  • First, analyze the system and decide which instances have important data and association.

  • Second, consider only those instances, which will cover the functionality.

  • Third, make some optimization as the number of instances are unlimited.

Library management system in php

Before drawing an object diagram, the following things should be remembered and understood clearly −

  • Object diagrams consist of objects.

  • The link in object diagram is used to connect objects.

  • Objects and links are the two elements used to construct an object diagram.

After this, the following things are to be decided before starting the construction of the diagram −

  • The object diagram should have a meaningful name to indicate its purpose.

  • The most important elements are to be identified.

  • The association among objects should be clarified.

  • Values of different elements need to be captured to include in the object diagram.

  • Add proper notes at points where more clarity is required.

The following diagram is an example of an object diagram. It represents the Order management system which we have discussed in the chapter Class Diagram. The following diagram is an instance of the system at a particular time of purchase. It has the followingobjects.

  • Customer

  • Order

  • SpecialOrder

  • NormalOrder

Now the customer object (C) is associated with three order objects (O1, O2, and O3). These order objects are associated with special order and normal order objects (S1, S2, and N1). The customer has the following three orders with different numbers (12, 32 and 40) for the particular time considered.

The customer can increase the number of orders in future and in that scenario the object diagram will reflect that. If order, special order, and normal order objects are observed then you will find that they have some values.

For orders, the values are 12, 32, and 40 which implies that the objects have these values for a particular moment (here the particular time when the purchase is made is considered as the moment) when the instance is captured

The same is true for special order and normal order objects which have number of orders as 20, 30, and 60. If a different time of purchase is considered, then these values will change accordingly.

The following object diagram has been drawn considering all the points mentioned above

Human System Interaction

Where to Use Object Diagrams?

Object diagrams can be imagined as the snapshot of a running system at a particular moment. Let us consider an example of a running train

Now, if you take a snap of the running train then you will find a static picture of it having the following −

  • A particular state which is running.

  • A particular number of passengers. which will change if the snap is taken in a different time

Here, we can imagine the snap of the running train is an object having the above values. And this is true for any real-life simple or complex system.

In a nutshell, it can be said that object diagrams are used for −

  • Making the prototype of a system.

  • Reverse engineering.

  • Modeling complex data structures.

  • Understanding the system from practical perspective.

Sequence diagram is one of the best ways to identify the requirements and processes of a system. This is an interaction diagram that illustrates how objects in a system communicate with each other. Each object passes on some messages to another in a sequential time or order of steps in a process. What’s more, it gives developers an overview of the external actors including their order and the events they generate. Here in this post, we provided sequence diagram notations, sequence diagram examples, and a detailed instructional guide.

System Sequence Diagram Examples and Tutorial

Sequence Diagram Notations

A sequence diagram is composed of elements and icons which you need to be familiar with in order to create one. There are basic symbols, components, and types of message arrows that may occur in a UML sequence diagram example.

Actor – An external entity that interact with the system.

Object – Refers to the symbol in a system that describes how a class role will behave.

Activation Bar – A rectangle shape placed on a lifeline that indicates the time or duration an object needs to finish a task.

Lifeline – Is a vertical dashed line that represents the presence of an object over time.

Option loop – Rectangle symbol that represents a repetitive sequence in a system sequence diagram example. It executes a task when a certain condition is met.

Synchronous – Represents a message where the sender waits for the response of the receiver before the message continues. This illustrates a line with a solid arrowhead.

Asynchronous – A type of message that does not need a response from the receiver before the message gets back and carries another message. This is usually drawn with a solid line and an open arrowhead.

Return Message – It represents a symbol of a dashed line with an open arrowhead in response to the calls from the original lifeline.

Create Message – Used to create an object in a sequence diagram example that is usually drawn using a dashed line and an open arrowhead pointing to the object created.

5 Editable Sequence Diagram Examples

  • Sequence diagram example for Online Shopping
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A sequence diagram is used in various fields that involve processes just like in online shopping. In this UML sequence diagram example, you will see the flow of ordering items online from browsing items to the confirmation of the order via email as shown in the illustration.

User Interaction Diagram

  • Sequence diagram example for Library Management System
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There is a volume of students renting books from the library. To regulate this, it’s essential for students to have online access to the record of available books. This system sequence diagram example is just made for this purpose. Also, the system will also inform the student if they exceeded the allotted time for renting a book and a penalty will apply accordingly.

  • Sequence diagram example for ATM
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An automated teller machine lets you access your bank account. With it, you can check your balance, enter the amount to withdraw, and many more. The sequence diagram example of an ATM below shows the processes in sequential order. From the interface access, ATM control, transaction unit, and printer.

  • Sequence diagram example for Software Engineering
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This diagram outlines the authentication process on Facebook. It gives the developer a view of the steps starting from accessing the web brow, requests to access the application, and authorization server. At the bottom of the UML sequence diagram example is an option loop that contains other special conditions.

  • Sequence diagram example for Hospital Management System
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Through the help of a hospital management system, the establishment will be able to manage the volume of information. Moreover, doctors or nurses will be able to track the status, and health history of patients. That is illustrated in the system sequence diagram example below.

How to Make Sequence Diagram Online?

Interaction Diagram For Library Management Systematic

Creating a sequence diagram from scratch is fast and easy with GitMind. This tool is complete with the shapes and icons for building this diagram. Plus, you can access the tool from any of your favorite browser free of charge. On top of that, all elements are customizable allowing users to add shapes, text, modify fonts, color and so much more. Learn how to create your own sequence diagram example by following the steps below.

  • Access GitMind from your browser and click the “New Flowchart” button from the templates gallery.
  • Click the “More Shapes” button at the lower-left corner to open the shapes library manager. Put a checkmark on the UML shapes folders and click “OK” to add them to the editor.
  • Click on the symbols you need and they will be automatically be added to the canvas. Arrange these shapes and add text to model a system sequence diagram example. Finally, export the map to an image or PDF file.


Using a sequence diagram, you will be able to easily understand the workflow and meet all the requirements of a system. Moreover, you will not have a difficult time familiarizing yourself with its components allowing you to create your own sequence diagram example in no time.

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